Retinal Diseases and Vitreoretinal Surgery
Vitreous body is a clear gel-like fluid that fills the eyeball. It fills two third of eye volume and shapes the eye. Vitrectomy (drainage of vitreous body) is reserved for problems that occur in posterior part of the eye. Following vitrectomy operation, the space is filled with aqueous humor and various feeding fluids that are produced by the eye.
Vitrectomy can be used for removing blood and various freely floating objects in eye, debriding damaged tissues and eliminating their negative effects on retina. Blood, damaged cells and wound tissues cause blurred vision as light cannot be accurately focused on retina. Moreover, if vitreal fluid poses retraction effect over retina, vitrectomy may be required to drain this fluid.
- Some conditions requiring vitrectomy are as follows:
- Complications like retinal tear and hemorrhage secondary to diabetic retinopathy
- Macular holes
- Retinal detachments
- Intra-retinal membrane formation
- Intraocular hemorrhages (vitreous bleedings)
- Intraocular injuries
- Some problems arising out of various past ophthalmological surgical interventions
Retinal surgery is performed with a microscope and some special lenses that are used to better visualize posterior side of eye. Several small incisions are made on sclera (upper layer of eye). Microsurgical devices are inserted to intraocular area through those incisions.
These are as follows:
- Fiberoptic light source: It is used for illuminating the intraocular area.
- Infusion cannula: It is used for conserving shape of the eye during surgical intervention.
- Tools used for incise, retract and drain the vitreous body.
Vitrectomy is generally combined with repair of retinal tear, macular hole surgery and macular membrane peeling. Duration of surgery generally depends on severity of the condition in eye and type of intervention.