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It is divided into two groups; general pathology and systemic pathology. General pathology deals with abnormal stimulus of cells and tissues which are the underlying cause of all diseases. Systemic pathology investigates specific reactions by specific organs and tissues to a certain stimulus.

Cervicovaginal smear, ultrasound- or CT-guided fine needle aspirations, tru-cut biopsies, small biopsies, excisional biopsies and surgical specimens are examined in detail at pathology laboratories. Liquid based smear technique is used for cervicovaginal smears.

When biopsy specimens and surgical materials are examined, advanced staining techniques, such as histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, are recommended especially for tumor cases.

Also, frozen section is intraoperatively performed to establish diagnosis in 15 to 30 minutes, if ordered.​

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